The official name of a country that existed in central Europe dating back to 1804 referred to as the Habsburg empire. It occupied about sixteenth part of the total area of Europe. The monarachy consisted of two independent states: the kingdoms and lands represented in the council of the empire (Reichsrat), unofficially called Austria or Cisleithania and the "lands of St Stephen's Crown," unofficially called Hungary or Transleithania. Austria had become the leader of the German states following the fall of Napoleon but was later expulsed from the German Confederation. The Hungarians were recognized as rebelious and emperor Francis Joseph I had to rethink his policy toward the east and to consolidate his heterrogeneous empire. In 1868, he gave the name Austria-Hungary to the dominions under his sceptre. The Austro-Hungarian monarchy is very often called the Dual Monarchy. The two separate states - Austria and Hungary were completely independent of each other and each had its own parliament and government. The unity of the monarchy was expressed in the common head of state, who bears the name of Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary.

Source: The Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume III, New York, 1910

The Austria-Hungary empire collapsed in 1918.



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